Lyophilisation, more commonly known as freeze-drying, is a low-temperature dehydration technique used for the preservation of perishable foods or products that deteriorate if not refrigerated. Freeze-dried or lyophilized products are created by freezing the food or the item, lowering pressure, then removing the ice by sublimation. Due to the low temperature used in processing, freeze-dried products maintain the original shape, quality, structural integrity, color, nutrients, and other features of products. Common applications of lyophilization include biological, biomedical, food processing and preservation. Lyophilized products can be divided into categories which include :
- all kinds of pharmaceuticals, such as drugs and vaccines, hormones, plasma, proteins, antibiotics, that are freeze-dried to increase their shelf-life,
- baboratory samples, for instance, pathological samples, microbiological samples, viruses, bacteria, antibodies, which can be preserved by freeze-drying for research purposes.
- neutraceuticals, for example, seaweeds, aloe vera, tea, that can be preserved for a longer time by freeze-drying.
- pet food that can be preserved for the long term by freeze dying to maintain product quality.
- flowers, such as hyacinths, asters, roses, carnations, that can be preserved by freeze-drying to maintain the structure and quality of flowers.
- documents and books that need to be recovered after damage through fire, floods, and other accidents, can
- dairy products, such as milk, yogurt, cheese, ice cream, that do not require to be refrigerated if are lyophilized.
- other food, such as coffee, fruit, juice, vegetables, food flavorings, fish, eggs, noodles, soups, that usually are consumed by individuals in the field of space exploration, military, hikers, and ordinary consumers.
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